Karl Liebknecht en Rosa Luxemburg over misdaad en straf, Amsterdam, Bos (1922) Literatuur [ bewerken | brontekst bewerken ] Hetmann, Frederik: "Rosa Luxemburg", oorspr. Karl Liebknecht, (born Aug. 13, 1871, Leipzig—died Jan. 15, 1919, Berlin), German Social Democrat, who, with Rosa Luxemburg and other radicals, founded the Spartakusbund (Spartacus League), a Berlin underground group that became the Communist Party of Germany, dedicated to a socialist revolution. She was murdered along with Karl Liebknecht. In: Michael Fröhlich (Hrsg. ↑ rbb-tv - Rosa Luxemburg im Grips-Theater 07.11.2008 ↑ Statue am Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz, 29. He is best known for his opposition to the war in the Reichstag and his role in the Spartacist uprising of January 1919. At present Scheidemann and his gang, Ebert and his government, are living exclusively on the charity of rich uncle Wilson and the French imperialists who hope to stave off the wave of Bolshevism. Rosa Luxemburg has been dragged, senseless, into another car, Ober-Lieutenant Vogel sits at the side of the blood-soaked woman. The goal of the union was to fight against official Social Democracy, which had betrayed the cause of the proletariat and supported the military policies of the German [bourgeoisie]. 21 and 46) Karl Liebknecht––Comrade Trotsky also spoke to you about this––endured the entire revolution of 1905 together with us. After its first mass demonstration against the First World War in Berlin in 1916, several leaders, including Luxemburg … Is this not the greatest satisfaction for the workers, for the peasants and Red Army soldiers of Soviet Russia? Karl Paul August Friedrich Liebknecht was a German socialist politician and theorist, originally of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and later a co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany, which split from the SPD after World War I. Economic conditions in Petrograd at that moment were already dire, as food supply had collapsed, factory work had come to a halt, and thousands had either been conscripted into the Red Army or fled to the countryside to find relief. These words of hers at that time seemed enormously brazen: German Social Democracy was at the height of its glory. They are immune, no one dare touch them.  August Winnig––one of the leaders of the Hamburg trade-union movement, prior to the war was editor of the central organ of construction workers, Grundstein (Winnig was a mason by trade) and member of the local Hamburg parliament. In December 1914, she joined with Karl Liebknecht, Leo Jogiches, Paul Levi, Ernest Meyer, Franz Mehring and Clara Zetkin to establish an underground political organization called Spartakusbund (Spartacus League). So starben Karl Liebknecht und Rosa Luxemburg In der Nacht vom 15. auf den 16. Manfred Scharrer: Karl Liebknecht (1871–1919). Sided with the revisionist wing of the party. Liebknecht was in poor standing with the leaders of the Second International even before the start of the war, but with the start of the war he landed among the unquestionably suspicious. Items in brackets are the translator's insertions for clarity or, in the case of note 6, correction of Friedrich Ebert's name (identified as "Fritz" in the original). The Burgergerwehr (Civil Guard) of Wilmersdrof, a suburb of Berlin, raided the illegal dwelling of Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg and arrested and took them both to the Eden Hotel in Berlin, the Staff Headquarters of the Gardeschuetzen (Horse Guards) Division. Imagine what powerful propaganda the very death of such a man as Karl Liebknecht serves for the idea of communism. Died during the war. At present Scheidemann and his gang, Ebert. We need to return, comrades, to the atmosphere of sleek and decorous Social Democracy and the Second International of that time, when the demands of Liebknecht seemed to be madness. Precisely for that they were especially hated by the Berlin social democrats. Now imagine the pain that news that Karl Liebknecht is no longer among the living calls forth in the hearts of both German and French soldiers. Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg always felt the most intimate and fraternal connection to our revolution. Bernstein and the revisionists, as they were called then, insisted that, in essence, the working class should not reject the so-called colonial policy or imperialism (as we would put it now) but carry it out, as they said, in cultural forms and for the benefit of culture. Stefan Kipfer, Marxist Literary Criticism: An Introductory Reading Guide. Liebknecht sent us a letter at the Zimmerwald conference which ended with famous words in response to the slogan that Schiedemann and his fraternity had issued at the start of the war: "Civil peace, reconciliation between classes, between wolves and sheep, between the bourgeoisie and the working class, between the butcher-monarchs and the soldiers and peasants." And only a small group of Marxists, at the head of which stood Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, said in 1907, eleven years ago: imperialist war is approaching, the bourgeoisie of all countries is leading all of humanity toward this unavoidable catastrophe. The murderers are at work, Their enemies are in their power. The uprising was crushed by the SPD government and the Freikorps(paramilitary units formed of World Wa… In 1917–1918 enjoyed immense popularity not only in liberal bourgeois circles but also among American and West European workers. And right at that moment one thoughtful shout from a soldier resounded: "Are there not, after all, people who are fighting against this hell, even individuals who come out on their own in the course of world history and proclaim "down with the war"[?].  Born in 1870, killed 15 January, 1919. One of his friends said: \"He was a very clever and able debater. Rosa Luxemburg began her work as a young girl in Poland and then continued it in Germany; she worked also in Russia.  The Spartacists, i.e. And he succeeded in breaking the ice. Do you want to know why exactly Rosa Luxemburg was killed? 9. Rosa Luxemburg is in their power. In Riga, thanks to Scheidemann's odiousness and the work of the German leader of trade unions, August Winnig, German proletarians together with Allied forces and the Baltic barons are coming out against Russian Bolshevik forces. And you know what untouchable authority Bebel enjoyed in the ranks of German Social Democracy; at that congress, speaking with the greatest harshness against Rosa Luxemburg, he all but demanded her departure from the party. Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg always felt the most intimate and fraternal connection to our revolution. Yesterday was difficult for us, comrades; and today is difficult; these days are difficult for us. In the presidential election of 1920 he was replaced by the "Republican" Harding. Did Marx Ever Meet Walras (on a Lake in Switzerland)? The Burgergerwehr (Civil Guard) of Wilmersdrof, a suburb of Berlin, raided the illegal dwelling of Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg and arrested and took them both to the Eden Hotel in Berlin, the Staff Headquarters of the Gardeschuetzen (Horse Guards) Division. Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 1998, ISBN 3-933240-20-4. He did not personally participate in the Zimmerwald conference because he had been conscripted; he was sent to the front in the calculation that a stray bullet would remove that dangerous enemy of the bourgeoisie. We know only one example from French history when a German socialist was so loved by French workers: I speak of Friedrich Engels. She said, "Look what is happening in Riga and in the occupied places. The Bolsheviks pinned their hopes on German radicals to spread the revolution into Europe and, once victorious, extend a fraternal hand to the struggling Soviet state. K. Liebknecht first of all thought of us, of the Russian revolution, and headed directly to his goal, to the building of the Russian embassy, where our comrades were still at that time, bared his head before the building and said that he sends "brotherly greetings to the first government of the calloused hand.". The workers of Germany will step over it, and together with them we will reach the complete victory of the Third International! Transcription/Markup: Brian Reid Would Hitler still find a way to come to power? In our selection of material we do not favour any one tendency, tradition or variant. Captains Hoffmann, Pabst and Petry and Lieutenant Vogel and Jaeger zu Pferd Runge stand at the door. Recent weeks have been especially difficult. They rub their hands. And the imperialist officers of the German Republic rub their hands, Captain Pflungk-Hartung, Lieutenants Stiege, Liepmann, von Rietgen, Schulze and Heinz Pflungk-Hartung rub their hands. Publisher: Communist Party of Great Britain Do you want to know why exactly Rosa Luxemburg was killed? Liebknecht was alone in voting against war credits in the German Reichstag, and his voice resounded across the entire world. Januar 1919 in Berlin Freikorpssoldaten der Garde-Kavallerie-Schützen-Division die untergetauchten Führer des Spartakusbunds , Rosa Luxemburg und Karl Liebknecht . Rosa Luxemburg belongs among the few individuals in the contemporary generation of the workers' movement to whom a share of the greatest happiness came: to serve not only as a populariser of the ideas of Marx but also to work farther, to add her own word to the field of Marxist theory. They knew that one of the most dangerous enemies of the bourgeoisie, we can say without exaggeration, was and remained Rosa Luxemburg. Confronted with the violence and disruption of their lives, the German people squarely aliened behind the government, and the revolution was crushed. The murderers make their report. Scheidemann and Ebert are now calling their constituent assembly. Founded in 1997 it asserts that, not withstanding the variety of its practical and theoretical articulations, Marxism constitutes the most fertile conceptual framework for analysing social phenomena, with an eye to their overhaul. We need to return, comrades, to the atmosphere of sleek and decorous Social Democracy and the Second International of that time, when the demands of Liebknecht seemed to be madness. The Berlin communards knew, just like the Petrograd workers in October last year, what they would have to endure after the seizure of power. Translated, edited and introduced by Clayton Black. Such was the official slogan of German Social Democracy. The entire hope of the world bourgeoisie is concentrated on using any sort of barrier to separate the workers of one country from the workers of another country, and, most important, to separate them from the workers of Russia, who defeated their bourgeoisie. (Image: Permission given by Alexander Fiebrandt, grandchild of the photographer Herbert Fiebrandt/Public domain) On January 15, 1919, the soldiers tracked her down and arrested her. She did not betray herself during the war either. The best in humanity is following our path, seeing the inevitability and rightness of that path. At the beginning of the war, in 1915, everything German was cursed in France. A Response to Cummings and Shoikhedbrod: Towards Decolonizing the Jewish Question? Bebel himself, knowing Liebknecht since childhood and loving him as a son, attacked him harshly for such, in his view, an "adventurist" proposal. Following one frightfully unsuccessful exchange of fire for the French in 1915, the French frontline soldiers gathered in a circle, started a fire, and the survivors––among whom were many French intellectual workers––began to discuss their fate and think about what awaited them further. Here is what happened: German Social Democracy, having for many years played a reactionary role in history, was able to seize the soviets through its apparatus of bureaucratic officials, usurp their rights, impose its own policies, and gather everything in its own paws. Liebknecht was one of the first to swim against the current. Even Bebel, who in his declining years made many concessions to the right wing of Social Democracy, even Bebel wavered. She was a founding member of the Communist Party of Germany. What do you mean, go to the soldiers to preach socialism! man is told that the motor has broken down, and is asked if he can walk. A pacifist who during the war gave many widely broadcast speeches against the war and proposed the project for creating the League of Nations as a means for promoting peace in the future. Jaeger Runge hits Liebknecht, who sits in the automobile, twice on the head from behind with a rifle butt. You remember the recent dialogue between French and German generals. What will be the tasks of worker-revolutionaries when the criminal hand of the bourgeoisie leads Europe to that imperialist war? Januar 2009 — Wehler: „Mord an Liebknecht und Luxemburg hätte gerichtliches Nachspiel haben müssen“. Their killings came after the crushing of the January Uprising in Berlin, and enjoyed the tacit approval of leading members of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), which had taken power only […] Ober-Lieutenant Vogel puts his pistol to her head, and blows her brains out with a bullet. For what did the German communards fight; what were German workers seeking, what were their great leaders––Liebknecht and Luxemburg––seeking? In 1890 Rosa Luxemburg met Leo Jogiches, who had already served a term of imprisonment for revolutionary activity. This is so odious that I openly and calmly declare that the German trade union leaders and German Social Democrats are the greatest of scoundrels. Please credit During the war––leader of the right opportunist wing of the German Social Democrats, social patriot, voted for war credits, led the fight against K. Liebknecht and the "Spartacus" group; after the November revolution of 1918––head of the compromise government of republican Germany. members of the "Spartacus" union (Spartacus was the name of the leader of a well-known uprising of Roman slaves), formed at the beginning of the war by K. Liebknecht, R. Luxemberg, L. Jogiches (Tyszka), and others. Historical Materialism is a Marxist journal, appearing 4 times a year, based in London. Today marks the passing of 100 years since the murders of Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919) and Karl Liebknecht (1871-1919). Comrades, our hearts are heavy. We will also not forget that in France, where the bourgeoisie raised an especially strong wave of chauvinism, where everything German in 1915 was cursed, where workers and soldiers were infected with unusual hatred toward mankind, the name of Liebknecht was pronounced with love! To Rosa Luxemburg belongs the immense credit, which she shares with our comrade and teacher, Lenin, for formulating in 1907 at the international socialist congress in Stuttgart the basic idea for which Liebknecht and Luxemburg perished and for which everything that is honest and heroic in the international working class is now fighting. It is important to remember that it was meant to be delivered as a speech, so the paragraphs tend to be short (often only a single sentence) and the punctuation inconsistent. I remember conversations with Rosa Luxemburg in 1906 in the village of Kuokkala in the little apartment of Comrade Lenin, then in semi-emigration after the first revolution had been broken. The French general rebuked the German general for the help that German soldiers supposedly gave to us, the Bolsheviks, in occupied places around Riga. You may freely copy, distribute, display and perform this Karl Liebknecht (Leipzig, 13 augustus 1871 – Berlijn, 15 januari 1919) was een van de leidinggevende figuren van de Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD), tot hij met deze partij brak en zich bij de veel radicalere Spartacusbond aansloot.. Van 1890 tot 1893 studeerde hij rechten en politieke economie aan de universiteiten van Leipzig en Berlijn. Karl Liebknecht y Rosa Luxemburg contaron para sus proyectos con el proletariado afín que no había acudido a las trincheras de la Gran Guerra, bien por no ser alemanes o bien por razones de edad o físicas. There is a document––and, probably, there are many of them––that bears witness to the love in France for Karl Liebknecht. 4, No. That is, until their leaders, Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, the latter a Jew, were murdered by opposite forces. I am convinced that the best of the German proletariat is repeating to itself, "Can we really tolerate for even one more hour the power of the bourgeois murders who call themselves Social Democrats, who killed Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg––the pride of the international proletariat?". For his famous booklet, "Against Militarism," he was imprisoned for months on end. German Social Democrats decided that only an adventurer could propose that! Prior to the war stood on the right wing of the party, during the war an ardent chauvinist, after the war an irreconcilable foe of the communists. After their release, Luxemburg taught in Berlin between 1907 and 1914. Following one frightfully unsuccessful exchange of fire for the French in 1915, the French frontline soldiers gathered in a circle, started a fire, and the survivors––among whom were many French intellectual workers––began to discuss their fate and think about what awaited them further.  "Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg," a speech delivered to a meeting of the Petrograd Soviet on 18 January 1919, was published in a special brochure together with a speech of Comrade Trotsky.  Scheidemann, Philipp––member of the German Social-Democratic party, prominent deputy in the Reichstag. Januar 1919 ermordeten Freikorps-Soldaten die Anführer des Spartakus-Aufstandes. When the "independents," together with the official SDs, joined the "Council of People's Plenipotentiaries" (a provisional revolutionary government) in November 1918, the Spartacists broke with them and, in December 1918, formed the German Communist party. ON Wednesday, January 15th, 1919 Karl Libeknecht and Rosa Luxemburg were murdered. Ready at that time to drown every German in a spoonful of water, he appeared with an article in which he said: there were only two Germans in Germany who, after the Franco-Prussian war, remained internationalists––Marx and Engels. Another larger group – the USPD or independent Socialists – also broke away adopting a halfway position between the revolutionary Spartacists and the ‘moderates’.  The speech was given on 18 January 1919, and 19 January of the same year elections for the National Assembly were to be held. ", She hurled that right in their faces! ... //www.findagrave.com: accessed ), memorial page for Dr Rosalia “Rosa” Luxemburg (5 Mar 1871–15 Jan 1919), Find a Grave Memorial no. Not a month passed before the German proletariat declared, "Only over our dead bodies will you come to a constituent assembly." What will be the tasks of worker-revolutionaries when the criminal hand of the bourgeoisie leads Europe to that imperialist war? After 1914 a patriot and defensist. Endnotes are Zinoviev's. Leader of a small group of Blanquists. All is well for murderers. The German general answered, "your excellency, why do you not understand that your accusation is without foundation? Luxemburg was born in March 1871 in Zamosch, Poland. In 1889, aged 18 and because of … In the course of the entire war, one can say, she did not spend a single month in freedom,––Wilhelm with his gang and Scheidemann with his fraternity played with her like a cat with a mouse––releasing her for several days, and, after a short time, picking her up again and putting her in prison, concocting various accusations, setting trials. Grigorij Zinov’ev . Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, leaders of the radical Spartacus League, were eager to transform Germany into a republic of workers’ and soldiers’ councils (a Räterepublik) in imitation of the soviet republic being established by the Bolshevik leaders in … To the bourgeoisie it seems that the proletariat is a corpse over which they will step to get to the constituent assembly. German Politician. Liebknecht is delivered to a first aid station as an “unknown man, found dead,” by Lieutenant Liepmann. The answer was Rosa Luxemburg, but she wasn’t given a chance to do so. Stavros Tombazos and the Discordance of Times, The Challenges of Understanding Digital Labour: Questions of Exploitation and Resistance, The General Theory of Permanent Revolution, The Humanisation of Nature and the Naturalisation of Marxism, Trotsky and the Problem of Soviet Bureaucracy, Two Revolutions, One International Legal Order, Marxism & Latin America: Jeffery R. Webber, Borderland Marxism and Russia’s Revolutionary Periphery: Eric Blanc, Marxism, Space and a Few Urban Questions: A Rough Guide to the English Language Literature. At the Stuttgart congress in 1907 two worlds stood opposed to one another. A Marxist Utopian between East and West: Karl Schmückle A Place for Polemic: Audacity, Implosion, and the Politics of Transition A Precarious Game: The Illusion of Dream Jobs in the Videogame Industry When the working class sacrifices its blood so selflessly, gives up the best that it has without hesitating for a second, will rank-and-file participants really waver? Daniel Hartley, Marxist Theory in Japan: A Critical Overview, Origins of the French Fifth Republic: A Reading Guide, Sartre and his Critique of Dialectical Reason, The Sexuality and Political Economy Network. At the Stuttgart congress in 1907 two worlds stood opposed to one another. More than once she rebuked the most stalwart leaders of German Social Democracy in the discussion of questions of foreign policy, saying that, when the issue is adopting resolutions, the socialists are very radical, but when it comes to genuine struggle against the war and against the government that called forth this war, then they all "hide in the bushes. It stops in a dark side avenue. Translation involves difficult decisions about word choice and sentence structure, but I have tried to remain true to the author's meaning without doing violence to his words. And he succeeded in breaking the ice. Such was the official slogan of German Social Democracy.  Wilson, Woodrow (1857–1924)––"Democratic" president of the United States, formerly a professor. She falls. He devoted his whole existence to his work as a socialist, and his followers idolised him.\" He had inherited money from his grandfather and was willing to use this for the good of the soci… ", And thus say workers of the entire world now. And they did not deceive the Berlin workers or tell them that if the communards win tomorrow everyone would be well fed. Public Domain: Marxists Internet Archive If they were victorious tomorrow––it would not mean that the workers of Berlin would receive two pounds of bread apiece and that there would be foodstuffs in Berlin and that rivers of milk with banks of jelly would flow there. Liebknecht sent us a letter at the Zimmerwald conference which ended with famous words in response to the slogan that Schiedemann and his fraternity had issued at the start of the war: "Civil peace, reconciliation between classes, between wolves and sheep, between the bourgeoisie and the working class, between the butcher-monarchs and the soldiers and peasants." The coming months may be even more difficult for us. Karl Liebknecht als Nicolaitaner und Studiosus. Matthias John: Höhere Bildung in Leipzig. Rosa Luxemburg was one of the key leaders of the Spartacist movement. The hatred of these leaders of the German proletariat is now obvious! The last phrase in Liebknecht's letter read as such: "Comrades, our business now is to say––no civil peace, but. The elections did, in fact, take place, and the resulting National Assembly, in which bourgeois parties dominated, drafted and promulgated the current bourgeois-republican constitution of Germany. Comrades, we dissolved the constituent assembly exactly 12 months ago. They were seeking what you and I already have. In 1916, after the split of the "independent SDs" from the official party, "Spartacus" joined the "independents," preserving, however, its internal autonomy. In 1915, in the trenches, where special efforts were made to enflame chauvinism, in France, which was completely engulfed by the flame of chauvinism and hated everything German, four years ago the best people, the best soldiers, the best workers recalled the name of Karl Liebknecht with reverence. Then he is struck down, a shot and somewhere in the night the wood groans. Rosa Luxemburg [ˈʁoːza ˈlʊksəmbʊɐk]1 Écouter, souvent retranscrit en français Rosa Luxembourg [ʁoza lyksɑbuʁ]2 Écouter, en polonais Róża Luksemburg [ˈruʐa ˈluksɛmburk]3, née le 5 mars 1871 à Zamość dans l'Empire russe (actuelle Pologne) et morte assassinée le 15 janvier 1919 à Berlin en Allemagne, est une militante socialiste et communiste, et une théoricienne marxiste. Rosa Luxemburg is in their power. Now we see the results of the criminal policies of the gentlemen Scheidemanns. What do you mean, go to the soldiers to preach socialism! He was a founder of the union of international youth, which has a great future. All is well for the murderers. . Karl Liebknecht Biography German Social Democrat, who, with Rosa Luxemburg and other radicals, founded the Spartakusbund (Spartacus League), a Berlin underground group that became the Communist Party of Germany, dedicated to a socialist revolution. He did not personally participate in the Zimmerwald conference because he had been conscripted; he was sent to the front in the calculation that a stray bullet would remove that dangerous enemy of the bourgeoisie. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-320-01050-6. The German proletariat was portrayed as a collection of bandits. During the war became an ardent chauvinist and in 1918 played a leading role in the counterrevolutionary movement in the Baltics. Some tried to present Scheidemann's policies as though they were a consistent implementation of Marx's teaching. All that is youthful, fresh, honest, and revolutionary, vigorous, and upstanding in the working class has gathered around the banner of the union of youth, of which Liebknecht was one of the founders. He’ll not reach Moabit (the prison) alive.” “Nor Rosa.”. Vorrei soprattutto parlare di Rosa Luxemburg, che ho personalmente conosciuta. Only a small group headed by Clara Zetkin was united with Rosa Luxemburg and sat next to her when the reproaches poured over her. Luxemburg quickly became the figurehead of the revolution, and foreign journalists nicknamed her and Karl Liebknecht the "two German Lenin's". Can you really doubt that the Parisian working men and women, who have such exalted revolutionary traditions––people who, in 1915 with reverence spoke the name of Karl Liebknecht––can you doubt at all that they, like us, are overflowing with determination to struggle to the end and that they also clench their fists and say, "We will avenge the sacred blood of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg! They fully appreciated the meaning of the victory that they could gain. Luxemburg and Liebknecht were killed in the middle of the Spartacist uprising, a series of strikes and demonstrations that began on 4 January 1919, when the Independent Socialist Emil Eichhorn was dismissed as Police Chief of Berlin.
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